Orthodontic Information

Thyroid and Orthodontics

تیروئید و درمان ارتودنسی

Through its hormones, thyroid regulates various physical functions. This makes the thyroid one of the most important endocrine glands within our body. Any disturbance in the thyroid hormones can be followed with many problems in our body. Orthodontics is a dental treatment technique by which many dental and jaw problems can be solved. Thyroid related disorders would negatively affect orthodontics or other dentistry services and treatments. In this article, we will deal with thyroid, its disorders and their impact on orthodontics.

خانمی در حال نشان دادن ماکت غده ی تیروئید

Thyroid gland

Thyroid and its Effects on Body

Thyroid is a gland in the front of our throat along with the effects mentioned above, through the production of thyroid hormones, it additionally affects our bodies metabolism and activities.. Thyroid also controls the calcium levels in our body, so it plays a key role in maintaining the health of our bones and teeth. Any disturbance in activities of this gland would lead to problems in activity of some hormones, body metabolism and hence it can disturb our body’s functions. The most common disorders caused by any failure in thyroid gland’s function are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which our thyroid gland secretes more than normal levels of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism would be due to many causes. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is overconsumption of iodine. Iodine can be found in small amounts in edible salts and it is necessary for the proper function of our body, however, overconsumption of iodine would lead to hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism in turn would result in some general problems and consequences including hair loss, weight loss, hand shaking, heart palpitations, dental and oral problems including gingivitis, Xerostomia or oral dryness and burning mouth syndrome (BMS).

On the other hand, hypothyroidism is a condition in which our thyroid gland doesn’t produce and secretes enough thyroid hormone into our body. Its most common cause is lack of iodine, as throughout the planet those people who do not use enough iodine salt or the salt they use has no iodine mostly suffer from hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism may be followed by certain problems like dry skin or xeroderma, muscle cramps and spasms, constipation and depression. People who suffer from hypothyroidism need to consume Levothyroxine, after being examined by a doctor. The dose for this medicine is determined based on the intensity as well as lab tests results.

دختری با دندان های ارتودنسی شده که از درد تیروئید رنج میبرد

A girl with orthodontic teeth who suffers from thyroid gland pain

The Impact of Thyroid on Orthodontics

Thyroid hormones would affect the movement of teeth considerably during orthodontic treatment. Thyroxin is a hormone released by thyroid. Thyroxin sets our body’s calcium level, so it plays a vital role in the form and arrangement of our teeth and jaws during the orthodontic treatment. Thyroid hormones also can enhance the movement speed of teeth during the orthodontic treatment. Therefore, in people who suffer from hyperthyroidism the movement speed of teeth is higher than normal, while it is less than normal level in people who suffer from hypothyroidism. For this reason, those suffering from hormonal problems intending to achieve the best results through using orthodontics need to control these hormones under supervision of a specialist doctor. Whether you have hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, before starting an orthodontic treatment patient’s need to control your thyroid hormones under supervision of an endocrinologist.

Thyroid Control During Orthodontic Treatment

People who suffer from hyperthyroidism always feel more stress and depression in comparison to normal people. So, these people feel more stress during orthodontic treatment and experience a condition known as thyrotoxicosis crisis. It is a condition in which the patient’s thyroid starts to work more than ever, which in turn results in more serious hyperthyroidism and increased energy of a toxic thyroid. In this condition, under supervision of an endocrinologist certain medicines like epinephrine can be used to control this condition. In the acute cases, the orthodontist postpones the orthodontic treatment if they see fit. On the other hand, the length of orthodontic treatment visit must be short in people with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism as much as possible, particularly in bonding sessions in which brackets are supposed to be placed, this time must be as short as possible. For these patients, an orthodontist may use tranquilizers for their patient during the treatment session.

Important Points about Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism During Orthodontic Treatment

People who suffer from thyroid related problems and disorders need to meet some instructions during their orthodontic treatment in order to experience a simpler treatment and better result. Some of these instructions are as follows:

  • Avoid stress, tension and condition in which you may feel any sort of stress
  • In case of having any sort of infection, remove them under supervision of a doctor, because infection in people with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism will disturb orthodontic treatment procedures.
  • During orthodontic treatment, if you see symptoms of thyrotoxicosis including fever, heart palpitations, diarrhea and vomiting share it with your orthodontist.

Some Potential Complications of Thyroid Disorders during Orthodontic Treatment

Some thyroid disorders would bring about some complications and problems for a patient who has just started their orthodontic treatment. Some of the possible complications that thyroid disorders may cause during orthodontic treatment are:

  • In people with hyperthyroidism, remodeling in jaw bones, teeth and periodontal tissues would be extensive.
  • In patients with hypothyroidism, orthodontic treatment would lead to tooth root decay.

Hyperthyroidism would result in tongue hypertrophy also known as macroglossia, which in turn may negatively affect the form of teeth and jaw and its bones during the orthodontic treatment.

Thyroid and Orthodontics FAQ

1. How can we control thyroid hormones?

Thyroid hormone release can be somehow controlled through setting a proper diet, however for controlling a hormonal balance you need to refer to an endocrinologist, because consumption of medicines is necessary for controlling thyroid hormones.

2. When do we have to visit a doctor for treating our thyroid disorders?

If you have symptoms of any sort of thyroid disorders or if you feel swelling at the front of your throat, please consult an endocrinologist about it. Likewise, before starting an orthodontic treatment, if you have any of the symptoms of thyroid disorders, share it with your orthodontist.

3. Is it possible to conduct thyroid surgery while we are doing orthodontics?

It’s recommended to discuss your orthodontist on this issue, however, if your endocrinologist lets you, it is better to postpone your surgery to after your orthodontic treatment.

4. Can we use iodine control pills for controlling our thyroid functions during an orthodontic treatment?

Please keep in mind that using any pills or other medicines without prescription from your endocrinologist would result in other problems and complications for you, so it is recommended to discuss with an endocrinologist for controlling your thyroid functions during treatment.

Dr Abdolreza Jamilian Orthodontist

About Dr Abdolreza Jamilian Orthodontist

Dr. Jamilian, an orthodontist, has a specialized fellowship in orthodontic surgery and maxillofacial abnormalities and is a professor in the orthodontics department of the Dentistry School of the Islamic Azad University. He is member of Iranian and European Board of Orthodontics (EBO) and is a member of the Iranian, American and European Orthodontists Association.

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