general dental informtion

Nail Biting

nail biting

Nail biting differs from thumb sucking. Thumb Sucking is a habit, but nail biting is an act by the child to reduce internal stress, for example during anger, tests, watching action movies, or reacting to hostilities from favorite individuals, such as the mother, whom the child is angry at.
Nails are the most sensitive parts of the skin that protect fingertips from physical and thermal damage. Delicate objects can be easily lifted with fingernails, and sewing with small needles is also thanks to nails. Nail biting, however, damages the surrounding skin and allows microbes under the skin. Lots of microbes and contamination also accumulate under fingernails and are transferred into the mouth after biting.

Nail biting is the most important disorder in 3-12-year-olds and is more common in girls, but also seen in adults. In addition to damaging fingers, it also damages oral and dental tissues and causes supraclusion and maxillofacial problems; the most important of which is the maxillary and mandibular incisor separation and glossocele, which causes ankyloglossia as well as problem in pronouncing sounds.

nail biting in adults


Factors affecting nail biting

  1. Extreme anger as a result of emotional strain and stress
  2. Fear and anxiety
  3. Imitation
  4. Overexcitability
  5. Indetermination
  6. A sense of incompetence, inferiority, and inadequacy
  7. Intellectual conflicts
  8. Insecurity
  9. Wrongful upbringing practices, such as punishment, rebuking, and discrimination
  10. Expectations higher than children’s abilities
  11. Inability to relate to peers and associates
  12. The school’s and the teacher’s problematic behaviors and encounter with the child
  13. Malnutrition, especially vitamin A deficiency, which exacerbates nervous conditions.
  14. Mineral deficiency, especially iron, which compels the individual to consume material such as soil, sand, or fingernails.

Parents should consider the following points so as to make the child quit nail biting:

The best ways for quitting nail biting

  1. Increase the quality of the family’s emotional space and create a joyful and safe space for your child.
  2. When evaluating your children’s behavior, always pay more attentions to their strengths than their weaknesses.
  3. Encourage their positive behaviors and be indifferent to their negative behaviors.
  4. Avoid rebuking your children.
  5. Don’t compare them with others.
  6. Don’t discriminate between them and their brothers or sisters.
  7. Delegate responsibilities at the house and school according to their abilities.
  8. Be careful not to expose your children to terrifying situations, including horror films and seeing imaginary and superstitious creatures.
  9. Provide suitable entertainments during your child’s daily schedule.
  10. Identify you children’s talents and facilitate their participation in group games, social collaborations, schools, entertainment, and joyful and active sports.
  11. Avoid punishment, sore thumb, rubbing pepper on finger, and hitting their fingers with a ruler.
  12. A very effective method is to encourage and reward the child for their efforts in quitting nail biting so as to surprise to receive the reward.
  13. Having playmates and entertaining toys can also help your children quit their habit.
  14. Ridiculing and threatening will do no good. The treatment should include understanding the problem and helping the person to find a suitable personal compromise and solutions to relieve themselves of emotional strain.
  15. Bathing the child before sleep, especially in a bubble-filled tub, excites and emotionally lulls the child to sleep.
  16. Listening to your stories during sleep can be helpful, and if the child needs to be more relaxed, rub their back or lie next to them in their bed. Lie next to them for the first few nights if you deem that necessary. Gradually reduce the time you spend with your child every night.
  17. Playing a soft and calming music is incredibly helpful while turning off the lights.

nail biting in children


Children may have bad and undesirable habits, such as thumb sucking, hair curling, bruxism (gnashing of teeth), nose-picking, chewing on objects, e.g. a pencil, obsessive scratching, head banging, biting themselves, e.g. on the hand, shaking their body parts, e.g. the leg, twirling, skin peeling, and nail biting.

In many cases, such habitual disorders can be solved with the help of patients, teachers, or a useful guide.

In a few cases, however, children hold onto these habits until adulthood, either voluntarily or involuntarily. Nail biting is one of the most common habitual disorders in adults. The affected individual often bites their fingernails during anger, nervous pressures, exhaustion, or in tense environments.

According to statistics, nail biting is common in children and teenagers, whereas 5% of them continue to have this habit as adults.

Possible Causes of nail biting

Some researchers believe that the most common causes for nail biting include stress, depression, and exhaustion.

Other possible causes for nail biting and other disorders include: Consuming narcotics, especially amphetamines and cocaine, important mental disorders, brain diseases, mental retardation, and lacking one of the five senses, such as hearing or eyesight.

Nail Biting Symptoms

It’s not unnatural for children to bite their nails, suck their thumb, or have other habitual disorders for a short time. If such habits become permanent and intensified, however, parents and other relatives should consider treatments.Symptoms of nail biting in an individual include:

  • Short and ridged fingernails
  • Oral herpes
  • Fungal nail infection, which causes skin redness and inflammation around the nail (paronychia)
  • Finger lesions caused by the herpes simplex virus
  • Eruption of decaying and damaged tooth in the child
  • Gingivitis and gum bleeding
  • Incisors’ fractures or cracks
  • Warts around nail folds
  • Nail Fungus

Effects of nail biting

In addition to a sense of embarrassment due to nail biting and having unpleasant nails, nail biting has other negative and harmful effects, including:

  1. Oral infections
    While biting nails, the hands are often dirty. Hence, harmful bacteria and microbes cause oral, lip, and gingival infections. Did you know that about 2000 skin infections have been found in nail polish salons? Only then will you realize how susceptible you become to illnesses when you bite your nails.
  2. Dental Problems
    Nails are hard and biting them is difficult. Hence, you will damage your teeth if you bite your nails, especially the incisors. This habit changes your teeth’s appearance. Therefore, your incisors will be fractured or cracked in addition to having undesirable hands.
  3. Inability to use hands
    If you have a habit of constantly biting on your nails and having your hand inside your mouth, you cannot correctly carry out your professional duties. In severe cases, nail biting prevents the person from performing their normal and daily acts.
  4. Nail infection
    Nail biting causes your nails to become weak and loose, letting bacteria enter small cracks and wounds in your nails.Although some nail infections are treated easily, others such as nail infection are hard to treat.

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