Normally, maxillary teeth should be 2 mm ahead of the mandibular teeth. Otherwise, anterior cross bite occurs in which the lower teeth are ahead of the upper teeth. This problem should be treated as soon as possible otherwise it will result in protrusion of the mandible, leading to Class III skeletal malformations due to mandibular growth.
The disorder can be easily resolved with a removable plaque if treated at an early age. Anterior cross bite should be treated upon observation otherwise it will lead to the Class III skeletal malocclusion requiring jaw surgery at the age of 18.
Prevalence of the Crossbite malocclusion in children equals 4% to 5% which is classified into posterior crossbite and anterior crossbite. Here we will elaborate on the anterior crossbite malocclusion.
The anterior crossbite malocclusion should be treated as soon as possible in the early ages, since in the older ages (18 years old) due to the completion of the development of teeth, the mandible is placed in front of the maxilla which leads to Skeletal Class III malocclusion (skeletal cl lll).
Various Types of Anterior Crossbite Malocclusion
-Dental: In the crossbite malocclusion one or two teeth are affected and the jawbone is in its natural form, sometimes crossbite can involve multiple front teeth causing the mandible to protrude and maxilla to sit back.
The anterior crossbite is a type of the dental crossbite malocclusion that could be diagnosed during childhood between the ages of 6 to 7 by examination and it should be treated at early ages using dental orthodontics. Because the patients are not fully grown yet, dental development is not completed and orthodontists will be able to control the development of teeth in maxilla and mandible by orthodontics appliances. But if the patient reaches the age of 15 and puberty occurs, the treatment will be difficult. Because the jaw is completely developed and orthodontics treatment is not possible per se. The ortho-surgery is used for these cases.
The anterior crossbite malocclusions could be caused as a result of mandible problems. In these cases, all front teeth are involved in this type of malocclusion.
The anterior dental crossbites affect the child’s beauty and result in temporomandibular joint problems, long-term pain in both jaws, and teeth erosion.
Factors Causing Anterior Dental Crossbite
Anterior dental crossbite occurs due to the following reasons:
- The excessive number of teeth could cause teeth crowding and misalignment of the front teeth, which result in protrusion of the teeth in the lower jaw.
- Lingual placement of teeth buds in the upper jaw
- Side effects of the left lip and palate treatment surgery that hinders the development of the dental arch.
- Crowded Teeth.
- Over-retention of deciduous or temporary teeth.
- Genetic effects.
Side effects of anterior cross bite
The most common side effects of anterior cross-bite abnormalities are as following:
- Class III skeletal abnormality
- The possibility of tooth breakage due to improper contact of teeth
- Enamel loss due to wear of teeth
- Muscle contraction and headaches due to pain and constant pressure on the teeth for a long time
- Inability to speak and pronounce some words correctly
- Difficulty during chewing and swallowing
- Adverse effects onTemporomandibular joint and jaw and also Mandibular deviation.
Treatment of anterior teeth crossbite
This dental malocclusion can be easily treated by visiting an orthodontist in childhood by the following ways:
- Removal of malpositioned primary teeth for proper growth of maxillary and mandibular teeth.
- Using a removable orthodontic appliance in the mouth
There are two treatment plans after 12 years of age
The first choice is to move the teeth in the right direction using fixed orthodontics
The second choice is orthognathic surgery, which is used after the age of 18 and when the growth of the two jaws has stopped. This treatment plane is used in severe cases.